Dual-use items are goods that are normally used for civilian/consumer purposes, but also can have military applications. These can be physical goods or software and technology. They can range from raw materials to components to complete systems, eg aluminium alloys, bearings, or lasers. They could also be items used in the production or development of military goods or chemical, biological or nuclear weapons, eg machine tools, chemical/manufacturing equipment and computers.
A part of the ongoing Export Control Reform is the license exception Strategic Trade Authorization (STA). This type of U.S. Government authorization allows a controlled item to be exported under defined conditions without a transaction-specific license. The defined conditions for any license exception allow for an audit trail to ensure the U.S. Government’s ability to enforce the controls. Eligibility to ship under a license exception is not a de-control.
In August the President of the United States directed an interagency review of the US Export Control system. The Export Control Reform Initiative seeks to strengthen national security and the competitiveness of key U.S. manufacturing and technology sectors by focusing on current threats, as well as adapting to the changing economic and technological landscape.